Iron Products

Iron Ore

Iron ore is a naturally occurring mineral substance composed primarily of iron oxides, often with varying amounts of impurities such as silica, alumina, and phosphorus. It is typically mined from open-pit or underground mines and can vary widely in composition and quality.


      • Hematite: Rich in iron content, typically ranging from 50% to 70%, and often found in red, brown, or black coloration.
      • Magnetite: Contains higher iron content, usually above 60%, and exhibits magnetic properties. It is often darker in color compared to hematite.
      • Limonite: A mixture of hydrated iron oxides with variable water content, typically yielding lower iron content compared to hematite and magnetite.
      • Siderite: Composed of iron carbonate and usually contains less iron compared to hematite and magnetite.


Iron ore is the fundamental raw material in the production of iron and steel. After extraction, it undergoes processing, including crushing, screening, and beneficiation, to remove impurities and improve its iron content. The refined iron ore is then smelted in blast furnaces or reduced in direct reduction plants to produce pig iron or sponge iron, which are further processed into steel and various steel products used in construction, infrastructure, automotive manufacturing, machinery, and appliances.


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Iron Ore Concentrates

Iron ore concentrates are intermediate products obtained from processing raw iron ore. They are typically produced by crushing and grinding iron ore to liberate the iron-bearing minerals and then concentrating them through physical separation methods such as magnetic separation, flotation, or gravity separation.


  • Hematite Concentrate: Produced from hematite-rich ores and characterized by high iron content and low levels of impurities.
  • Magnetite Concentrate: Derived from magnetite-rich ores and known for its high iron content and magnetic properties.

Iron ore concentrates are essential feedstock materials in the steelmaking industry. They are commonly used in blast furnaces as part of the iron ore charge to produce molten pig iron. Due to their high iron content and low impurity levels, concentrates improve the efficiency of iron and steel production processes, leading to higher productivity and lower production costs.


Chemical Analysis
AnalyzeIron Ore ConcentrateFine Iron OreLump Iron Ore
%Fe min66.56060
%P max0.0550.150.15
%S max1.20.80.8
%Sio2 max255
%Al2O3 max0.51.51
%Cao max0.62.52.5
%Mgo max22.52
Physical Analysis
%Moisture max442
Grain Size%98 < 3mm%90 < 12mm%98 < 32mm

Iron Ore Pellets


Iron ore pellets are small, spherical or cylindrical agglomerates of iron ore fines, binders, and additives. They are formed through pelletization, a process that involves mixing finely ground iron ore with binders such as bentonite or organic polymers, followed by pelletizing in a pelletizer or disc pelletizer and induration in a furnace to harden the pellets.


      • Fired Pellets: Produced by heating green pellets to high temperatures in a furnace to achieve metallurgical bonding and strength.
      • Non-Fired Pellets: Formed by compacting iron ore fines and binders into pellet shapes without the need for induration, primarily used for direct reduction processes.
      • Fluxed Pellets: Contain fluxing agents such as limestone or dolomite to facilitate the formation of slag during the steelmaking process.

Iron ore pellets are a preferred raw material for steelmaking due to their uniform size, shape, and composition, which enhance the efficiency and productivity of blast furnace operations. They provide several advantages over raw iron ore or concentrates, including improved handling, transportation, and metallurgical performance. Pellets are typically used in blast furnaces to produce molten pig iron or in direct reduction plants to produce sponge iron, which is further processed into steel.

Chemical and Physical Analysis of Iron Ore Pellets

Chemical Analysis
B4AL2O3 + SiO2 (%)CaO + MgO (%)S (%)P (%)FeO (%)Fe Total (%)
1.04 Max.2.7 % Max.2.8 % Max.0.01 Max.0.05 Max0.6 Max.66 Min.
Physical Analysis
Porosity(%)T.I (%)A.I (%)Size (8-16 mm ) (%)CCS (kg/p)
19-2495Min.3.5 MaxAve. 85%Ave. 250

Metallurgical Coke

Metallurgical coke is a porous, hard, and black carbonaceous material produced by heating bituminous coal in the absence of air to remove volatile components and concentrate carbon content. It is composed primarily of carbon, with minor amounts of ash, sulfur, and moisture.


  • Blast Furnace Coke: Optimized for use in blast furnaces for iron and steel production, characterized by high strength, low reactivity, and uniform size.
  • Foundry Coke: Specifically designed for foundry applications, featuring higher reactivity and thermal conductivity to facilitate metal melting and casting.
  • Petroleum Coke: Derived from refining crude oil, petroleum coke is sometimes used as a substitute for metallurgical coke in certain industrial processes.

Metallurgical coke plays a critical role as a fuel and reductant in the iron and steelmaking process. In blast furnaces, coke serves as the primary source of heat and carbon for the reduction of iron ore to molten pig iron. It also acts as a structural support for the burden materials and helps maintain permeability within the furnace. Additionally, coke is utilized in foundries for melting metals and in various industrial applications requiring high temperatures and carbon reactivity, such as calcium carbide production and ferroalloy manufacturing.

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